Appearance of a denser colour or higher gloss where wet and dry layers overlap during paint application.


A rough, crinkled paint surface occurring when paint forms a 'skin'.


Black, gray or brown areas on the painted surface.

Tannin staining

Brownish or tan discoloration on the paint surface due to migration of tannins from the substrate through the paint film.

Surfactant leaching

Concentration of water-soluble ingredients on water-based paint, creating a blotchy, sometimes glossy appearance, often with a tan or brownish cast.

Poor gloss retention

Deterioration of the paint film, resulting in excessive or rapid loss of lustre of the topcoat.

Poor alkali resistance

Colour loss and overall deterioration of paint film on fresh masonry.


Loss of paint due to poor adhesion. Where there is a primer and top coat, or multiple coats of paint, peeling may involve some or all coats.

Nail Head Rusting

Reddish-brown stains on the paint surface.

Fading & poor colour retention

Premature and/or excessive lightening of the paint color, which often occurs on surfaces with a sunny exposure.

Efflorescence & mottling

Crusty, white salt deposits, leached from mortar or masonry as water passes through it.

Dirt Pickup

Accumulation of dirt, dust particles and/or other debris on the paint film; may resemble mildew.


The splitting of a dry paint film through at least one coat, which will lead to complete failure of the paint.


Formation of fine powder on the surface of the paint film during weathering, which can cause colour fading.


Bubbles resulting from localised loss of adhesion and lifting of the paint film from the underlying surface.


Patterned cracking in the surface of the paint film resembling the regular scales of an alligator